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by Jes B. Tirol


The Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos de Ultramar (1887) contains the reports of the participants of the Legazpi Expidition from Navidad, Mexico to the Philippines.  It was reprinted by the Philippine Historical Commission in 1967.

If you will diligently read the abstruse Spanish language, you will find many data and informations not found in our history books.


The Negotiations

Tuasanmalea, the Bornean pilot of the captured native parao was tasked by Gen. Legazpi to contact Sikatuna inside the navigable river two (2) leagues away.

During the first trip, Tuasanmalea was told by Sikatuna to let their leader (Legazpi) to come for a Sandugo.  In the second trip, Tuasanmalea brought with him a Spaniard named Santiago de Garnica.  Since he was not the leader, Sikatuna let de Garnica have a Sandugo with his son (no name given).  Sikatuna promised to walk to the seashore to have a Sandugo with Legazpi.

The next morning, Sikatuna with about 40 warriors and women were at the shoreline of Hinawanan, Loay, Bohol.  After many negotiations, Sikatuna agreed to board the flagship San Pedro provided Spanish hostages will be left with the group of Sikatuna.

Sikatuna boarded the flagship with four (4) companions.

The Four Companions


After the Sandugo between Sikatuna and General Legazpi, Sikatuna executed and affidavit before the notary of the fleet Hernando Riquel.  The date in the affidavit is March 25, 1565.  Sikatuna was described as “more than 40 years old”.  (Coleccion De Documentos, pp. 286-295).  Since there is no other record saying that Sikatuna returned to the flagship for the affidavit, then March 25 was the date of the Sandugo.


The affidavit contains the deposition of Sikatuna regarding what happened during the attack of the Portuguese and Ternateans two (2) years previously.

There are also four (4) other affidavits executed that narrated what happened during the attack of the Portuguese and the Ternateans.

The first was executed by Magut, a Bornean and 25 years old.  He narrated the events during the attack of the Portuguese and the Ternateans.


The second was done by Ceilan, a Bornean and about 35 years old.

The third was done by Sibumanglar, a Boholano and about more than 30 years old.


The fourth was done by Ximongoi, a Boholano and 25 years old.

Since no natives were allowed to board the flagship San Pedro, then these four (4) who executed affidavits before the Notary of the Fleet Hernando Riquel were the four (4) companions of Sikatuna.

The Borneans Magut and Ceilan could not be members of the captured Bornean Parao because they were already in Bohol more than two years previously and knew of the attack of the Bo-ol Kingdom by the Portuguese and Ternateans.

These Borneans were already in Himilian, Loboc, Bohol with Sikatuna.  When the Bornean pilot Tuasanmalea went to Sikatuna in Himilian, Loboc, it would be natural for Sikatuna and Tuasanmalea to have Bornean intermediaries.

Where was Sigala?

Sigala was the Chief of Himilian, Loboc.  During the attack of the Bo-ol Kingdom, Chief Sigala took Chief Sikatuna to Himilian, Loboc to recuperate from his wounds.

When Tuasanmalea came, Chief Sigala was away from his kingdom.  So it was Sikatuna that Tuasanmalea encountered.

On March 28, 1565 Chief Sigala was in the flagship San Pedro to have his Sandugo with Gen. Legazpi.  It is very clear in the record that Chief Sigala was described as a higher chief and of higher quality than Chief Sikatuna.

Why is Sikatuna Popular?

When the Bo-ol Kingdom was destroyed by Portguese and Ternatean invaders in 1563, the ruling Princes were Pagbuaya and Dailisan.  Sikatuna was the chief in Guiwanon, Baclayon, Bohol.

Chief Sikatuna was a chieftain of lower rank because Chief Sigala was higher than him.  The question is why is Sikatuna popular in our history?

The answer is, he allowed himself to be baptized as a Christian.  In 16 July 1597, Fr. Miguel Sanchez found the old Sikatuna in the hinterlands of Baclayon.  Sikatuna was given the catechism and baptized.  Fr. Sanchez was very proud that he was able to convert the old chieftain that once had a Blood Compact with Gen. Legazpi.

What was the baptismal name of Sikatuna?  The Late Fr. Jose Ma. Luengo was of the opinion that the name given to Sikatuna was “Joaquin” and his wife (Albasea) was baptized as “Anna”.  July 16 is the feast day of the parents of Saint Mary the mother of Jesus whose names were Joaquin and Anna.  You will notice that the icons of St. Joaquin and Anna are found at the altar of Baclayon Church.

Naturally the Spaniards gave more prominence to Chief Sikatuna (Joaquin) who converted to Christianity than to the higher Chief Sigala who did not convert to Christianity.  This historical fluke is followed until today.  Sometimes it is erroneously claimed that Sikatuna was the ruler of Bohol.

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