In the days of the Roman Empire, citizenship status has been a valued commodity. The worth of the citizenship in newly colonized lands was considerable, it opens the way to reside, to marry, to vote, and be voted for, to enter into commercial contracts and to enjoy the full protection of the Roman law.
A citizen vice versa was obliged to serve in the legions of the empire, and to pay taxes.
The privileged of citizenship created strong psychological and emotional attachment of the citizen to the state. His allegiance to the state became a matter of honor to uphold.
But globalization brought a modern loosening of ties between the citizen and the state. The psychological value of citizenship is taken away and focuses on practical benefits. Most advanced countries live with the idea of multiple citizenships with multiple loyalties. This has always been an issue in countries with large numbers of immigrants, particularly at times of conflict and war.
The picture becomes vaguer in the postmodern world. Countries today market their citizenship like merchandise, it become a symbol of convenience. It is clearly business rather than loyalty to a country.
A wealthy person can buy himself a citizenship in one country and obtain the passports of other countries.
Chinese millionaires are moving their families abroad. AU$5 million of investment in Australia gives them permanent residency. The U.S. asks $1 million for a green card and residency. Â£1 million of investment in the U.K. buys 5 years of residency, and the purchase of â‚¬500,000 of property grants residency in Spain.
In Moldova 74,000 applied for citizenship because it grants its citizens human rights, rule of law and the right to visa-free travel to EU member states.
Howabout the current migrant crisis struggling for survival in Europe, U.S. and Asia?